= بهترین  کرج پزشک، اطفال= بهترین  کرج پزشک، جراح مغز و اعصاب= بهترین  کرج پزشک، جراح کلیه و مجاری ادرار= بهترین  کرج پزشک، دندانپزشک= بهترین  کرج پزشک، کلیه و مجاری ادرار= بهترین  کرج پزشک، آلرژی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، ارتودنسی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، بیهوشی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، پوست و مو و آمیزشی

   Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ Ґ ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   () ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    Ґی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    Ԑ ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ǁ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی          ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     Ԑ ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی          ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی        ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی        ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    Ԑ      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  () ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  	 ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ѐ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    Ԑ       ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی          ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ґ ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ Ґ ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   Ґ ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԑ      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԑ     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   _     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ( )  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ӑ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی      ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  ѐ  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ( )  ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ӂ

ј ی ѐ  =ی  =Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی= ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ݘ  = ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی= ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     = ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   = ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   Ԙ= ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی= ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  ی= ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  Ԙ= ی   Ԙј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   =ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی ی ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی  ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  ی ǘ ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  یј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی ی ǘј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی =ی ی = =ی Ϙی ی=ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی یی =ǁیј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی ʐ= ی یی

  آمار بازدید کنندگان                       

 

 

کرج درمان اعتیاد= بهترین  کرج درمان در منزل= بهترین  کرج درمانگاه= بهترین  کرج دندانسازی= بهترین  کرج رادیولوژی= بهترین  کرج روانشناسی= بهترین  کرج ساختمان پزشکان= بهترین  کرج سرنگ، تولید= بهترین  کرج سمعک و

 

روماتولوژی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، زنان و زایمان= بهترین  کرج پزشک، طب فیزیکی و توانبخشی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، عفونی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، عمومی= بهترین  کرج پزشک، قلب و عروق= بهترین  کرج پزشک، گوارش= بهترین  کرج پزشک، گوش و حلق و بینی= بهترین  کرج پزشک داخلی، ریه= بهترین  کرج پزشک داخلی، غدد= بهترین  کرج پزشکی باروری و ناباروری= بهترین  کرج پزشکی هسته ای= بهترین  کرج ترمیم مو= بهترین  کرج تغذیه بالینی و رژیم درمانی= بهترین  کرج دارو، پخش= بهترین  کرج دارو، تولید= بهترین  کرج داروخانه= بهترین  کرج داروی گیاهی، پخش= بهترین  کرج درمان اعتیاد= بهترین  کرج درمان در منزل= بهترین  کرج درمانگاه= بهترین  کرج دندانسازی= بهترین  کرج وبلاگ سایت گفتار توان گستر =بهترین  کرج دارو، پخش= بهترین  کرج دارو، تولید= بهترین  کرج داروخانه= بهترین  کرج داروی گیاهی، پخش= بهترین  کرج درمان اعتیاد= بهترین  کرج درمان در منزل= بهترین  کرج درمانگاه= بهترین  کرج دندانسازی= بهترین  کرج  

 

 گفتار در مانی  کاردرمانی  فیزیو تراپی   شنوایی شناسی بینایی سنجی   ارتوپدی فنی   

  مجلات علمی    دانشگاه ها و دانشکده ها  کلینیکهای تخصصی   مراکز توانبخشی   

مراکز تشخیصی و  درمانی                 تجهیزات پزشکی              مراکز آموزشی خصوصی 

اطلاعات  پزشکان تهران         اطلاعات پزشکان مشهد               اطلاعات  پزشکان کرج  

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رادیولوژی= بهترین  کرج روانشناسی= بهترین  کرج ساختمان پزشکان= بهترین  کرج سرنگ، تولید= بهترین  کرج سمعک و شنوایی سنجی= بهترین  کرج سنجش تراکم استخوان= بهترین  کرج سونوگرافی= بهترین  کرج سی تی اسکن= بهترین  کرج طب سوزنی= بهترین  کرج عطاری= بهترین  کرج عینک، واردات و صادرات= بهترین  کرج عینک سازی= بهترین  کرج

 

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ی ی  ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی     ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی    ی ی  ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  ǐییی Ϙ یј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی ی ј ی   ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  ی ی ییј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی   ی ی Ϙ

 

 


 

 

     گفتار توان گستر ѐی ј ی ی 

 

 

       بهترین گفتاردرمانی کرجј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی گفتار توان گستر  هوشمندј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی اسم و آدرس بهترین گفتاردرمانی کرجј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی درمان ناگویایی کودکان کرجیј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی بهترین مرکز گفتاردرمانی غرب استان تهرانј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی مطب گفتاردرمانی سیاوش عطاییј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی با سابقه ترین گفتاردرمانی کودکان       دستگاههای بیو فید بک بینایی  شنیداری= برنامه های نروفیدبک ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی سه بعدی محرک مغزј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی بخش شنیداری - ادراکی=درمان انواع اختلالات گفتاری =ادگیری کودکان عادی= دچار تاخیر تکاملی گفتار =کودکان دچار  لکنت =فلج مغزی =کم توانی ذهنیј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  طیف اوتیسم ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی آماده سازی برای سنجش بدو ورود به مدرسه=جلسات درمانی دوساعتهј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی والدین همراه       =کم توانی ذهنیј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی  طیف اوتیسم ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی آماده سازی برای سنجش بدو ورود به مدرسه=جلسات درمانی دوساعتهј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی والدین همراه کودک در جلسه  درمانیј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی جلسه درمانی شامل SIј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی تربیت شنیداری ј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی آموزش ذهنیј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی ماساژ و تحریک اندامهای گویایی =استفاده از دستگاههای بیو فیدبک =برنامه های کامپیوتری خاصј ی یȘ   ی ی- јی کودک کرجی

 


 ی ʐی ی ی Ș ییی - یی ی یȘ  ی ј یی - ǘی

ی یϐیی Ϙ ی ύ ی ʘی

 

Ϙ ύ  - ی - ی ی   ی ی (autism spectrum disorder)  ی ی

 

 

ی SI  - ی یی  - ی -  ǎ ( P.N.F) ی ی ییی - ʐی ییȘ یȘ

 

  ی یی Ϙ ی ی ј ی ی .


  با تعیین وقت قبلی     =      آدرس مطب    =    کلیک کنید

 

 

 

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یی  :

siavashataee.com

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medu-karaj.ir

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loknatshekan.ir

pff-rhs.ir

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What Is Voice? What Is Speech? What Is Language?
On this page
Voice
Speech
Language
Additional Resources
The functions, skills, and abilities of voice, speech, and language are related Some dictionaries and textbooks use the terms almost interchangeably But for scientists and medical professionals, it is important to distinguish among them
Voice
Voice (or vocalization) is the sound produced by humans and other vertebrates using the lungs and the vocal folds in the larynx, or voice box Voice is not always produced as speech, however Infants babble and coo; animals bark, moo, whinny, growl, and meow; and adult humans laugh, sing, and cry Voice is generated by airflow from the lungs as the vocal folds are brought close together When air is pushed past the vocal folds with sufficient pressure, the vocal folds vibrate If the vocal folds in the larynx did not vibrate normally, speech could only be produced as a whisper Your voice is as unique as your fingerprint It helps define your personality, mood, and health
Approximately 75 million people in the United States have trouble using their voices Disorders of the voice involve problems with pitch, loudness, and quality Pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound based on the frequency of the sound waves Loudness is the perceived volume (or amplitude) of the sound, while quality refers to the character or distinctive attributes of a sound Many people who have normal speaking skills have great difficulty communicating when their vocal apparatus fails This can occur if the nerves controlling the larynx are impaired because of an accident, a surgical procedure, a viral infection, or cancer
Speech
Humans express thoughts, feelings, and ideas orally to one another through a series of complex movements that alter and mold the basic tone created by voice into specific, decodable sounds Speech is produced by precisely coordinated muscle actions in the head, neck, chest, and abdomen Speech development is a gradual process that requires years of practice During this process, a child learns how to regulate these muscles to produce understandable speech
However, by the first grade, roughly 5 percent of children have noticeable speech disorders; the majority of these speech disorders have no known cause One category of speech disorder is fluency disorder, or stuttering, which is characterized by a disruption in the flow of speech It includes repetitions of speech sounds, hesitations before and during speaking, and the prolonged emphasis of speech sounds More than 15 million individuals in the world stutter, most of whom began stuttering at a very early age The majority of speech sound disorders in the preschool years occur in children who are developing normally in all other areas Speech disorders also may occur in children who have developmental disabilities
Language
Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experienced, explained, and shared This sharing is based on systematic, conventionally used signs, sounds, gestures, or marks that convey understood meanings within a group or community Recent research identifies "windows of opportunity" for acquiring language--written, spoken, or signed--that exist within the first few years of life
Between 6 and 8 million individuals in the United States have some form of language impairment Disorders of language affect children and adults differently For children who do not use language normally from birth, or who acquire an impairment during childhood, language may not be fully developed or acquired Many children who are deaf in the United States use a natural sign language known as American Sign Language (ASL) ASL shares an underlying organization with spoken language and has its own syntax and grammar Many adults acquire disorders of language because of stroke, head injury, dementia, or brain tumors Language disorders also are found in adults who have failed to develop normal language skills because of mental retardation, autism, hearing impairment, or other congenital or acquired disorders of brain development
Additional Resources
MEDLINE/PubMed
MEDLINE (Medical Literature, Analysis, and Retrieval System Online) is the US National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) premier bibliographic database that contains over 12 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine It can be searched via PubMed or the NLM Gateway at http//wwwnlmnihgov/
How to perform a MEDLINE/PubMed search MEDLINE can be searched using NLM's vocabulary-based browser known as MeSH, short for Medical Subject Headings, or by author name, title word, text word, journal name, phrase, or any combination of these The result of a search is a list of citations (including authors, title, source, and often an abstract) to journal articles PubMed also searches MEDLINE "in-process" citations that are added daily, as well as some citations that arrive electronically directly from publishers

Facts About Oral Cancer

Definition
A malignant growth that affects any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, upper or lower jaw, tongue, gums, cheeks, and throat
Causes
Cigarette, cigar, or pipe smoking; smokeless tobacco; or excessive use of alcohol There has been a recent increase in the use of smokeless tobacco in any form, such as plug, leaf, and snuff However, the most popular with adolescent and young adult males is the practice of "dipping snuff" This tobacco product, in the form of a moist powder, is placed between the cheek and gum Nicotine and other carcinogens are then absorbed directly through the skin
Incidence
Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world (1) The literature indicates that at least 30,000 new cases of oral and oralpharyngeal cancers are diagnosed each year (2, 3) Incidence rates are greater than 21 male-to-female for oral cavity cancers, and are greatest in men over age 40 (2, 4)
Warning Signs
A red or white patch or a lump anywhere in the mouth that lasts for more than a month, or a sore that bleeds easily or doesn't heal Difficulty in chewing, swallowing or moving the tongue and jaw are later symptoms
Early Detection
Dentists and primary care physicians are often the first to detect these signs during regular checkups Speech-language pathologists also make note of unusual or abnormal growths during oral examinations and provide referrals to appropriate medical professionals
Treatment
The rate of curability of cancers of the lip and oral cavity varies depending on the stage and specific site Most patients present with early cancers of the lip, which are highly curable by surgery or by radiation therapy with cure rates of 90% to 100% (5)
Effects on Speech and Swallowing
Coordinated movement of all structures in the mouth and throat is essential for the production of intelligible speech These same abilities are also necessary for a person to swallow normally
The effects of a cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size of the growth For example, a sore or lump on the lips may restrict movement This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips (labial sounds) such as /p/, /b/, and /m/ Restricted movement of the lips might also reduce people' s ability to hold food in their mouth when eating A lesion on the tongue may affect the intelligibility of some lingual sounds, such as /l/ and /r/, and limit the ability to move food around the mouth or push food back toward the throat during swallowing A growth on the roof of the mouth (soft palate) or in the throat may change the nasal quality of the voice
Postsurgical outcomes on speech and swallowing abilities also depend on the location and size of the cancerous growth However, other important factors include the amount of tissue removed in surgery, the availability and frequency of speech/swallowing treatment, and the motivation of the patient
In some cases, reconstructive plastic surgery or the use of prosthetic devices can restore oral functioning to near normal levels
Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist
Evaluation and treatment by a speech-language pathologist is essential to restore speech intelligibility and swallowing skills Speech-language pathologists are integral parts of the hospital-based cancer team and perform both pre- and postsurgical assessments in addition to treatment
Standard articulation tests are used to assess intelligibility of speech, along with analysis of tape-recorded conversational speech samples To assess nasal air escape, the speech-language pathologist uses critical listening skills to analyze and describe resonance patterns Sometimes X-rays and special instrumentation are used to evaluate nasality problems If a swallowing problem exists, an X-ray called a "modified barium swallow" is generally recommended Sometimes, the swallowing process is viewed through a small fiberoptic tube inserted in the nose and passed down to the back of the throat
The speech-language pathologist can teach modifications in oral movements
Treatment often includes helping clients adapt to the differences in the size, shape, and feel of their mouth The speech-language pathologist will also teach a client how to make specific modifications in oral movement to produce the most intelligible speech sounds Oral exercises help the client develop better control over weakened muscles in the throat or palate and to correct nasality problems Treatment for swallowing problems varies from simple changes in food consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow In many cases, improvement is evident within several months
Speech for Patients With Tracheostomies or Ventilators
You have to breathe to live But what happens when a progressive disease like muscular dystrophy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gherig's disease) moves from attacking arms and legs to attacking breathing (respiratory) muscles? Or what happens when a car accident survivor is left with a head injury and swelling that slows down the response of the brain's respiratory center? And what about children born with lung disease or deformities of the chest wall and spine that interfere with breathing? These patients will have to breathe How do they do it?
Tracheostomy
A surgical opening is made in the windpipe (trachea) by cutting the neck below the Adam's apple, below the vocal cords A tube is placed in the opening, and air is inhaled and exhaled through the tube rather than through the mouth and nose For some, a tracheostomy is a short-term measure For others, it is long-lasting or permanent
Such life support does have a price As a result of tracheostomy and the new route of air travel, structures of the upper airway that warm and moisten air, filter air-borne debris, and facilitate coughing, sneezing, smelling, tasting, and swallowing play a reduced or non-existent role The extra debris, without the normal means of clearing it, can cause a buildup of fluids and secretions in the lungs that need to be cleared by suctioning through the tracheostomy tube Reduced smell, taste, and swallowing can reduce appetite and food intake to the point, in the most severe cases, of threatening life once again Food and secretions can be misdirected (aspirated) into the lungs and potentially cause pneumonia and even asphyxiation
Lack of Speech
If these were not enough potential problems, air flow as a result of the tracheostomy by-passes the vocal cords that allow for the production of sound and speech Air takes the path of least resistance, with most of it going out the tracheostomy tube Some air may leak up to the vocal cords, but it may not be forceful enough to drive the vocal cords into vibration, or it may only allow enough force for very short utterances
Caretakers and family members become frustrated because they do not know the needs and wants of the patient The patient feels isolated and alone at a time when his or her life is undergoing dramatic change
Young children are deprived of the vocal explorations and social interactions that are critical to the development of language skills The situation is made worse because caretakers tend to talk less to children who cannot communicate These children are then robbed of the rich models they need to hear so they can figure out what language is all about What can be done?
Speech With Tracheostomy
There are a number of options for speaking with a tracheostomy Tracheostomy tubes can consist of plain tubes or can come with inflatable cuffs that, when pumped up, provide a greater seal against the neck than plain tubes This increased seal can provide greater air supply to the lungs, but may not allow enough air leakage to power the vocal cords
Patients with a cuffless tube or patients who may only need the cuff inflated at certain times, for example during eating or sleeping, may get enough air leakage for speech, or they may be able to produce speech by blocking or occluding the tube with their fingers or hand Then the patient will breathe through the mouth and nose and vibrate the vocal cords as they did before surgery
These methods do not work for all patients for a variety of reasons Covering the tube may cause an increased resistance to breathing that is intolerable to some patients Contaminants from the hand or fingers may introduce infection into the body, a particularly critical situation for patients with aspiration problems Some patients may not get enough air for speech without blocking the tube, but may not have the awareness, muscle movement, or muscle tone to make a good occlusion
Talking Valves
As an alternative, a variety of valves are available that can be attached to the tracheostomy tube These valves allow air to enter via the tube, but leave by way of the mouth and nose Use of certain valves is also reported to have secondary benefits of reducing secretions, increasing the sense of smell, reducing aspiration, facilitating tube removal in patients for whom tracheostomy is not permanent, and perhaps even increasing oxygenation of blood in the arteries Because all valves do not produce the same quality of speech or the same secondary benefits, a valve for a specific patient should be selected based on the scientific and clinical results
Ventilator Users
For some patients, a tracheostomy tube alone may not be enough The tube may need to be connected to a breathing machine (ventilator) that provides a mixture of gases for life support Patients on ventilators can speak as long as the tracheostomy tube allows flow through the larynx and vocal cords However, the speech patterns of ventilator users present particular problems
Because of the design of the ventilator, speech occurs during the expiratory cycle of the ventilator Then there is a long silence until the next cycle of the ventilator During this silence, the patient may lose his or her turn to talk as conversation partners fill the silence with their own speech Listeners may also find it hard to follow the patient's communication message because the normal rhythm of conversational give-and-take is disrupted
Spoken phrases may have sudden bursts of loudness, reduced loudness at the end of phrases, and changes in voice quality because pressure in the trachea from the ventilator gases is not as stable as this pressure is in typical speech production Recent research has indicated that the speech of patients on ventilators may be improved by making simple adjustments to ventilator settings, particularly if no other problems exist besides breathing insufficiency There is also at least one speaking valve available that can be used with a ventilator
Speech-Language Pathologist and the Rehabilitation Team
The multiple and interrelated decisions that need to be made for patients with tracheostomies or ventilators cannot be made by one professional Physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, dietitians, speech-language pathologists, and others must all work together to choose the options that best meet the patient's total health needs The speech-language pathologist assesses the patient's cognitive and language abilities to determine communication potential, evaluates oral-motor and swallowing functions, and assesses the patient's ability to produce voice in different situations that may include using a speaking valve Whatever mode of communication is recommended for the patient in the context of his or her other needs, the speech-language pathologist plays a central role in ensuring that patients and caretakers know how maximum communication can be achieved Speech-language pathologists also treat problems of swallowing when indicated
Tracheostomy and ventilator use is life sustaining Speech for patients with tracheostomies or ventilators is life enriching
Find a speech-language pathologist near you who is certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association


The Basics Disorders of Vocal Abuse and Misuse
Have you "lost" your voice?
When you abuse or misuse your voice, you can damage your vocal folds, causing temporary or permanent voice changes such as
Laryngitis
Vocal nodules
Vocal polyps
Contact ulcers
Who is at risk?
Anyone who uses his or her voice excessively may develop a vocal abuse or misuse disorder These problems are fairly common among
Lawyers
Teachers
Clergy
Cheerleaders
Singers
Actors
Children
Diagnosis
If you've had vocal change or hoarseness for more than 2 weeks, see a doctor, preferably an otolaryngologist
Treatment
Most disorders of vocal abuse and misuse can be cured The best treatment is to eliminate the vocal behavior that caused the problem


Spasmodic Dysphonia
We have all experienced problems with our voices, times when the voice is hoarse or when sound will not come out at all! Colds, allergies, bronchitis, exposure to irritants such as ammonia, or cheering for your favorite sports team can result in a loss of voice But, people with spasmodic dysphonia, a chronic voice disorder, face the persistent question "What's wrong with your voice?"
With spasmodic dysphonia, movement of the vocal cords is forced and strained resulting in a jerky, quivery, hoarse, tight, or groaning voice Vocal interruptions or spasms, periods of no sound (aphonia), and periods when there is near normal voice occur
At first, symptoms may be mild and occur only occasionally Later on, they may worsen and become more frequent before they stabilize Even then, symptoms may be worse when a person is tired or stressed Or, they may be greatly reduced or even disappear, for example, during singing or laughing
Spasmodic dysphonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx or voice box The first signs of spasmodic dysphonia are most often found in individuals between 30 and 50 years old More women appear to be affected by spasmodic dysphonia than men (1) The effortful voice spasms of spasmodic dysphonia fluctuate in severity and may remit for hours or even days at a time (2)
Causes
When not used for talking, the vocal cords of people with spasmodic dysphonia are normal in appearance and function However, when the vocal cords are brought together for talking, their movement is uncontrolled
Symptoms come from more than one source Some people appear to have nervous system changes that produce an organic tremor of the vocal chords Others may have dystonia, another kind of neurologic disorder that creates abnormal muscle tone In rare cases, people can have spasmodic dysphonia symptoms because of acute or chronic life stress Diagnosis
There is no simple test for spasmodic dysphonia Rather, diagnosis is based on the presence of the typical signs and symptoms described above and the absence of other conditions that can produce similar problems The best evaluation involves as interdisciplinary approach and includes a speech-language pathologist to evaluate voice production and voice quality, an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) to examine the vocal cords and their movement, and a neurologist who looks for signs of neurological problems
Find a speech-language pathologist near you
Treatment
At present, there is no cure for spasmodic dysphonia However, several treatment options do exist for voice improvement
Repeat injections of small doses of botulinum toxin (Botox) into one or both vocal cords is frequently recommended Botox weakens the laryngeal muscles and results in a smoother, less effortful voice because of less forceful closing of the vocal cords Temporary breathiness or difficulty swallowing sometimes occurs for a short time after injection Treatment by a speech-language pathologist may also be recommended following injections to optimize voice production
Speech language pathology services alone are most helpful when symptoms are mild Clients learn techniques such as relaxation, breath control, maintaining a steady flow of air from the lungs during voice production, and pitch and loudness modifications Surgical cutting of the recurrent laryngeal nerve to paralyze one vocal cord initially met with good results by reducing the force of vocal cord closure Surgery was frequently followed by speech-language pathology treatment Long-term follow-up has shown return of voice symptoms within 6 months to 3 years of surgery in almost two thirds of these patients with a disturbing number who were worse than before
Psychological or psychiatric counseling is most useful when acceptance of the disorder and learning coping techniques are the desired goals Career or vocational counseling may also be advised for persons who fear that the disorder threatens their occupation Participation in local self-help support groups can also promote adjustment to the problem and provide contact with excellent sources of information
Vocal Fold Nodules and Polyps
What are vocal fold nodules and polyps?

Vocal fold nodules are benign growths on both vocal folds that are caused by vocal abuse Over time, repeated misuse of the vocal folds results in soft, swollen spots on each vocal fold that develop into harder, callus-like growths The nodules will become larger and more stiff the longer the vocal abuse continues

Polyps , on the other hand, can take a number of forms and are sometimes caused by vocal abuse Polyps appear on either one or both of the vocal folds and appear as a swelling or bump (like a nodule), a stalk-like growth, or a blister-like lesion Most polyps are larger than nodules and may be called by other names, such as polypoid degeneration or Reinke's edema

What will my voice sound like if I have nodules or polyps?

Nodules and polyps cause similar symptoms and include
Hoarseness
Breathiness
A "rough" voice
A "scratchy" voice
Harshness
Shooting pain from ear to ear
A "lump in the throat" sensation
Neck pain
Decreased pitch range
Voice and body fatigue
What causes nodules and polyps?

Nodules are most frequently caused by vocal abuse or misuse Polyps may be caused by prolonged vocal abuse, but may also occur after a single, traumatic event to the vocal folds, such as yelling at a concert Long-term cigarette smoking, hypothyroidism, and gastroesophageal reflux may also cause polyp formation Vocal abuse takes many forms and includes
Allergies
Smoking
"Type A" personality (person who is often tense or anxious)
Singing
Coaching
Cheerleading
Talking loudly
Drinking caffeine and alcohol (dries out the throat and vocal folds)
It has been noted that, for unknown reasons, vocal nodules occur more frequently in women between the ages of 20 and 50


How are nodules and polyps diagnosed?

If you have experienced a hoarse voice for more than 2 to 3 weeks, you should see a physician A thorough voice evaluation should include a physician's examination, preferably by an otolaryngologist, who specializes in voice, a voice evaluation by a speech-language pathologist, and possibly a neurological examination The voice team will assess vocal quality, pitch, loudness, ability to sustain voicing, and other characteristics of the voice An instrumental examination may take place, which involves inserting an endoscope into the mouth or nose to look at the vocal folds and larynx in general A stroboscope (flashing light) may be used to watch the vocal folds as they move


What can be done to get rid of nodules and polyps?

Nodules and polyps may be treated medically, surgically, and/or behaviorally Surgical intervention involves removing the nodule or polyp from the vocal fold This approach only occurs when the nodules or polyps are very large or have existed for a long time and is rare for children Contributing medical problems may be treated to reduce their impact on the vocal folds This includes treatment for gastroesophageal reflux, allergies and thyroid problems Medical intervention to stop smoking or to control stress is sometimes warranted

A majority of people receive behavioral intervention, or voice therapy, from a speech-language pathologist Voice therapy involves teaching good vocal hygiene, eliminating vocal abuses, and direct voice treatment to alter pitch, loudness, or breath support for good voicing Stress reduction techniques and relaxation exercises are often taught, as well

Vocal Fold Paralysis
What causes vocal fold paralysis?

Vocal fold paralysis is caused by head and neck injuries, tumors, disease, surgery, or stroke Nerve damage to the vagus nerve, which has branches that run from the brainstem to the larynx and regulates the movement of the vocal folds, is the specific cause of vocal fold paralysis

What are the symptoms of vocal fold paralysis?
The severity of voice and swallowing problems depends on where the nerve damage occurs Typical symptoms include
Hoarseness
Breathy voice
Inability to speak loudly
Limited pitch and loudness variations
Voicing that lasts only for a very short time (around one second)
Choking or coughing while eating
Possible pneumonia due to food and liquid being aspirated into the lungs (the vocal folds cannot close adequately to protect the airway while swallowing)
Are there different types of paralysis?
Yes Bilateral vocal fold paralysis involves both vocal folds, which become stuck halfway between open and closed (the paramedian position) and do not move either way This condition often requires a tracheotomy (an opening made in the neck to provide an airway) to protect the airway when the person eats

Unilateral vocal fold paralysis is more common than bilateral involvement Only one side is paralyzed in the paramedian position or has a very limited range of motion The paralyzed vocal fold does not move to vibrate with the other fold, but vibrates abnormally or does not vibrate at all The individual will run out of air easily and be unable to speak clearly and with sufficient loudness to be understood

How is vocal fold paralysis diagnosed?
The vocal folds can be examined by using an endoscope that is inserted through the nose or mouth A light on the endoscope allows the examiner to view the folds and movement patterns during phonation (producing sound) and at rest Swallowing problems can also be evaluated by endoscopy or fluoroscopy, a radiology procedure that allows the examiner to view the movement of food and liquid mixed with barium from the mouth to the esophagus Typically a complete voice evaluation is conducted by a speech-language pathologist and otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat doctor)


How is vocal fold paralysis treated?
Bilateral paralysis is often medically treated and may require a tracheotomy to allow the person to eat safely Surgery may be considered to bring one or both vocal folds closer to midline

Unilateral paralysis can be treated medically and/or behaviorally Medical treatment includes muscle-nerve transplant, medialization thyroplasty (moving the paralyzed vocal fold toward midline), or injection of a substance to increase the size of the paralyzed vocal fold

Behavioral treatment includes voice therapy by a speech-language pathologist and may be the only treatment required for the individual The individual will work with the SLP on pitch alteration, increasing breath support and loudness, and finding the correct position for optimal voicing (such as turning the head to one side or manipulating the thyroid cartilage) Research has shown that voice therapy is an effective intervention in the interim period between diagnosis of the paralysis and final resolution of the problem


Laryngeal Papillomatosis
On this page
Description
Treatment
Research
Additional Resources
Description
Laryngeal papillomatosis is a disease consisting of tumors that grow inside the larynx (voice box), vocal cords, or the air passages leading from the nose into the lungs (respiratory tract) It is a rare disease caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) Although scientists are uncertain how people are infected with HPV, they have identified more than 60 types of HPVs Tumors caused by HPVs, called papillomas, are often associated with two specific types of the virus (HPV 6 and HPV 11) They may vary in size and grow very quickly Eventually, these tumors may block the airway passage and cause difficulty breathing
Laryngeal papillomatosis affects infants and small children as well as adults Between 60 and 80 percent of cases occur in children, usually before the age of three Because the tumors grow quickly, young children with the disease may find it difficult to breathe when sleeping, or they may experience difficulty swallowing Adults with laryngeal papillomatosis may experience hoarseness, chronic coughing, or breathing problems
There are several tests to diagnose laryngeal papillomatosis Two routine tests are indirect and direct laryngoscopy An indirect laryngoscopy is done in an office by a speech-language pathologist or by a doctor To examine the larynx for tumors, the doctor places a small mirror in the back of the throat and angles the mirror down towards the larynx A direct laryngoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia
This procedure is usually used with children or adults during lengthy examinations to minimize discomfort It involves looking directly at the larynx Direct laryngoscopy allows the doctor to view the vocal folds and other parts of the larynx under high magnification and samples of unusual tissue lesions that may be in the larynx or other parts of the throat

Treatment
Many forms of treatment have been used to remove laryngeal papillomas such as surgery, chemotherapy, or antibiotic therapy Currently, traditional surgical removal of the tumors and another technique, carbon dioxide laser surgery, are both used Carbon dioxide laser surgery uses intense laser light as the surgical tool
Once they have been removed, these tumors have a tendency to return unpredictably It is not uncommon for patients to require repeat surgery With some patients, surgery may be required every few weeks in order to keep the breathing passage open, while others may require surgery only once a year In the most extreme cases where tumor growth is aggressive, a tracheotomy may be performed A tracheotomy is a surgical procedure where an incision is made in the front of the patient's neck and a breathing tube (trach tube) is inserted through a hole, called a stoma, into the trachea (windpipe) Rather than breathing through the nose and mouth, the patient will now breathe through the trach tube Although the trach tube keeps the breathing passage open, doctors try to remove it as soon as it is feasible However, there may be some patients who may be required to keep a trach tube indefinitely in order to keep the breathing passage open In addition, because the trach tube re-routes all or some of the exhaled air away from the vocal cords, the patient may find it difficult to speak With the help of a voice specialist or speech-language pathologist the patient learns how to reuse the voice

Research
Scientists have developed a new technique using photodynamic therapy (PDT) With PDT, a physician injects a special dye that is sensitive to bright light into the blood stream This dye collects in tumors but not healthy tissue, and when the dye is activated by a bright light of a specific wavelength, the tumors that absorbed the dye are destroyed In addition to eliminating the tumors using PDT, scientists found that tumor regrowth decreased, even for patients with the most severe form of the disease
PDT was first developed to kill certain tumors in humans Although treatment was promising, results were inconsistent and the technique was soon abandoned However, recent research shows that treating patients with laryngeal papillomatosis using PDT appears to control tumor growth The development of newer forms of the dye has contributed to the resurgence of this promising form of treatment may prevent patients from having multiple surgical procedures


 


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